첨부 실행 코드는 나눔고딕코딩 폰트를 사용합니다.

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TestProject.zip
다운로드

▶ MainForm.cs

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Drawing.Text;
using System.Windows.Forms;

namespace TestProject
{
    /// <summary>
    /// 메인 폼
    /// </summary>
    public partial class MainForm : Form
    {
        //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Field
        ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Private

        #region Field

        /// <summary>
        /// 텍스트
        /// </summary>
        private string text = "When in the course of human events it becomes necessary for the quick brown fox to jump over the lazy dog...";

        /// <summary>
        /// 사각형 리스트
        /// </summary>
        private List<RectangleF> rectangleList;

        #endregion

        //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Constructor
        ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Public

        #region 생성자 - MainForm()

        /// <summary>
        /// 생성자
        /// </summary>
        public MainForm()
        {
            InitializeComponent();

            Load                      += Form_Load;
            this.pictureBox.MouseMove += pictureBox_MouseMove;
        }

        #endregion

        //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Method
        ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Private
        //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Event

        #region 폼 로드시 처리하기 - Form_Load(sender, e)

        /// <summary>
        /// 폼 로드시 처리하기
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="sender"></param>
        /// <param name="e"></param>
        private void Form_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            Bitmap bitmap = new Bitmap
            (
                this.pictureBox.ClientSize.Width,
                this.pictureBox.ClientSize.Height
            );

            using(Graphics graphics = Graphics.FromImage(bitmap))
            {
                graphics.Clear(Color.White);

                graphics.TextRenderingHint = TextRenderingHint.AntiAlias;

                using(Font font = new Font("나눔고딕코딩", 16, FontStyle.Regular))
                {
                    graphics.DrawString(this.text, font, Brushes.Blue, 4, 4);

                    this.rectangleList = GetCharacterRectangleList(graphics, font, this.text);
                }
            }

            this.pictureBox.Image = bitmap;
        }

        #endregion
        #region 픽처 박스 마우스 이동시 처리하기 - pictureBox_MouseMove(sender, e)

        /// <summary>
        /// 픽처 박스 마우스 이동시 처리하기
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="sender">이벤트 발생자</param>
        /// <param name="e">이벤트 인자</param>
        private void pictureBox_MouseMove(object sender, MouseEventArgs e)
        {
            string message = string.Empty;

            for(int i = 0; i < this.text.Length; i++)
            {
                if(rectangleList[i].Contains(e.Location))
                {
                    message = $"{i} 번째 문자 : {this.text[i]}";

                    break;
                }
            }

            if(this.messageLabel.Text != message)
            {
                this.messageLabel.Text = message;
            }
        }

        #endregion

        //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Function

        #region 문자 사각형 리스트 구하기 (단어용) - GetCharacterRectangleListForCharacter(graphics, font, text)

        /// <summary>
        /// 문자 사각형 리스트 구하기 (단어용)
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="graphics">그래픽스</param>
        /// <param name="font">폰트</param>
        /// <param name="text">텍스트</param>
        /// <returns>문자 사각형 리스트</returns>
        private List<RectangleF> GetCharacterRectangleListForCharacter(Graphics graphics, Font font, string text)
        {
            List<RectangleF> rectangleList = new List<RectangleF>();

            using(StringFormat stringFormat = new StringFormat())
            {
                stringFormat.Alignment     = StringAlignment.Near;
                stringFormat.LineAlignment = StringAlignment.Near;
                stringFormat.Trimming      = StringTrimming.None;
                stringFormat.FormatFlags   = StringFormatFlags.MeasureTrailingSpaces;

                CharacterRange[] characterRangeArray = new CharacterRange[text.Length];

                for(int i = 0; i < text.Length; i++)
                {
                    characterRangeArray[i] = new CharacterRange(i, 1);
                }

                stringFormat.SetMeasurableCharacterRanges(characterRangeArray);

                RectangleF rectangle = new RectangleF(0, 0, 10000, 100);

                Region[] regionArray = graphics.MeasureCharacterRanges
                (
                    text,
                    font,
                    ClientRectangle,
                    stringFormat
                );

                foreach(Region region in regionArray)
                {
                    rectangleList.Add(region.GetBounds(graphics));
                }
            }

            return rectangleList;
        }

        #endregion
        #region 문자 사각형 리스트 구하기 - GetCharacterRectangleList(graphics, font, text)

        /// <summary>
        /// 문자 사각형 리스트 구하기
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="graphics">그래픽스</param>
        /// <param name="font">폰트</param>
        /// <param name="text">텍스트</param>
        /// <returns>문자 사각형 리스트</returns>
        private List<RectangleF> GetCharacterRectangleList(Graphics graphics, Font font, string text)
        {
            List<RectangleF> rectangleList = new List<RectangleF>();

            float x = 0;

            for(int start = 0; start < text.Length; start += 32)
            {
                int length = 32;

                if(start + length >= text.Length)
                {
                    length = text.Length - start;
                }

                string substring = text.Substring(start, length);

                List<RectangleF> temporaryList = GetCharacterRectangleListForCharacter(graphics, font, substring);

                if(start == 0)
                {
                    x += temporaryList[0].Left;
                }

                for(int i = 0; i < temporaryList.Count + 1 - 1; i++)
                {
                    RectangleF newRectangle = new RectangleF
                    (
                        x,
                        temporaryList[i].Top,
                        temporaryList[i].Width,
                        temporaryList[i].Height
                    );

                    rectangleList.Add(newRectangle);

                    x += temporaryList[i].Width;
                }
            }

            return rectangleList;
        }

        #endregion
    }
}
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